Comment Mohammed épousa Zainab|
Remarque: j'encourage tout le monde (musulmans comme non-musulmans) à entrer dans le débat. Faites des recherches. Posez des questions à des musulmans, à des imams, à des incroyants, à propos de ce que je dis.
Un jour que le prophète de
l'islam se rendit chez son fils adoptif Zayd, ce dernier n'était pas à la
maison. Zainab, la femme de Zayd était présente, et le prophète de l'islam,
voyant Zainab (sans voile à la maison), s'en réjouit et dit :
Sourate al Ahzab, Verset 4
Sourate al Ahzab, Verset 5
Sourate al Ahzab, Verset 37
Mohammed cachait le désir d’épouser une femme mariée. Avant que le divorce n'aie lieu, "Allah" avait déjà fait naître ce désir dans le coeur de Mohammed. Le célèbre exégète Ibn Katir explique à propos de ce verset que Aïcha dit : " Si l’envoyé d’Allah devait cacher quelque chose de ce qui lui est révélé, il aurai caché ceci ". Et bien sûr, le scénario est fait intelligemment ! Mohammed s’auto-critique par le Coran pour prouver qu’il émane de Dieu.
Pour légitimer le mariage avec Zaynab, Muhammad abrogea l’adoption :
Sourate al Ahzab, Verset 40
The Messenger of God came to the house of Zayd b. Harithah. (Zayd was always called Zayd b. Muhammad.) Perhaps the Messenger of God missed him at that moment, so as to ask, "Where is Zayd?" He came to his residence to look for him but did not find him. Zaynab bt. Jash, Zayd’s wife, rose to meet him. Because she was dressed only in a shift, the Messenger of God turned away from her. She said: "He is not here, Messenger of God. Come in, you who are as dear to me as my father and mother!" The Messenger of God refused to enter. Zaynab had dressed in haste when she was told "the Messenger of God is at the door." She jumped up in haste and excited the admiration of the Messenger of God, so that he turned away murmuring something that could scarcely be understood. However, he did say overtly: "Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be to God, who causes the hearts to turn!"
When Zayd came home, his wife told him that the Messenger of God had come to his house. Zayd said, "Why didn't you ask him to come in?" He replied, "I asked him, but he refused." "Did you hear him say anything?" he asked. She replied, "As he turned away, I heard him say: ‘Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be to God, who causes hearts to turn!’"
So Zayd left, and having come to the Messenger of God, he said: "Messenger of God, I have heard that you came to my house. Why didn’t you go in, you who are as dear to me as my father and mother? Messenger of God, perhaps Zaynab has excited your admiration, and so I will separate myself from her." Zayd could find no possible way to [approach] her after that day. He would come to the Messenger of God and tell him so, but the Messenger of God would say to him, "Keep your wife." Zayd separated from her and left her, and she became free.
While the Messenger of God was talking with 'A'isha, a fainting overcame him. When he was released from it, he smiled and said, "Who will go to Zaynab to tell her the good news, saying that God has married her to me?" Then the Messenger of God recited: "And when you said unto him on whom God has conferred favor and you have conferred favor, ‘Keep your wife to yourself .’"- and the entire passage.
According to 'A'isha, who said: "I became very uneasy because of what we heard about her beauty and another thing, the greatest and loftiest of matters - what God had done for her by giving her in marriage. I said she would boast of it over us." (The History of Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, translated by Michael Fishbein [State University of New York Press, Albany, 1997], Volume VIII, pp. 2-3)
... The Prophet having witnessed this, took Zayd out to the Hijr and said, "O all those who are present, witness that Zayd [hereby] becomes my [adopted] son, with mutual rights of inheritance." When Zayd's father and paternal uncle saw this, they were satisfied and went away.
[Zayd b. Harithah] was thus called Zayd b. Muhammad until God revealed Islam. I was told all this by al-Harith [b. Muhammad] - Ibn Sa'd - Hisham b. Muhammad [al-Kalbi] - his father [Muhammad al-Kalbi], Jamil b. Marthad al-Ta'i, and others.
[Hisham] related part of the story on the authority of his father - [Badham] Abu Salih - ['Abdallah] Ibn 'Abbas. Through the chain of transmission going back to Ibn 'Abbas, [Hisham] related [the following]: The prophet gave to [Zayd] in marriage Zaynab bt. Jash b. Ri'ab al-Asadiyyah, whose mother was Umaymah bt. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim. Zayd later divorced her, and the Prophet married her. The Munafiqun made this a topic of their conversation and reviled the Prophet, saying, "Muhammad prohibits [marriage] with [the former] wives of one's own son, but he married the [former] wife of his son Zayd." As a result of this God revealed the following verse: "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, nay, he is the messenger of God and the seal of the prophets ...", etc. God also revealed this verse, "Call them by their fathers' names," so from that day onward [Zayd] was called Zayd b. Harithah, and [other] adopted sons were named after their [real] fathers. (The History of al-Tabari: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1998], Volume XXXIX (39), pp. 9-10)
Le passage suivant est la traduction du commentaire de Tabari sur le verset 37 de la sourate 33:
When the exalted Allah said, "Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favor: ‘Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah.’ But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah" this was said by Allah as chastisement to His prophet. For when He said, "one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favor" this was in reference to Zaid son of Haritha who had been set free by the apostle of Allah – prayers and peace be upon him.
When the Exalted Allah said, "Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah" this was concerning Zainab the daughter of Jash whom the prophet – pbuh – had seen in her robes and was enamored by her. Thus when Allah saw what was stirring in His prophet’s soul, he placed hatred in the heart of Zaid towards Zainab that he may depart from her. When Zaid mentioned his intention to separate from Zainab to the prophet, the prophet told him, "Retain thou thy wife" even THOUGH THE PROPHET DESIRED THAT THEY SEPARATE SO THAT HE COULD MARRY HER...
When Allah said, "Thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest," means that the prophet hid in his heart his desire for Zaid to depart from Zainab so that he may marry her, and Allah will reveal what you are concealing in your heart concerning this.
The Almighty said, "Thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah," because Allah was telling the prophet who feared people might say, "He ordered a man to divorce his wife so that he himself may marry her after she is divorced," and Allah aught to be feared more than people.
Narrated by Yunis, narrated by Ibn Wahab, narrated by Ibn Zaid who said, "The prophet –pbuh– had married Zaid son of Haritha to his cousin Zainab daughter of Jahsh. One day the prophet –pbuh– went seeking Zaid in his house, whose door had a curtain made of hair. The wind blew the curtain and the prophet saw Zainab in her room unclothed and he admired her in his heart. When Zainab realized that the prophet desired her SHE BEGAN TO HATE ZAID.
Zaid then came to the prophet –pbuh– and said, "O apostle of Allah, I wish to separate from my mate." The prophet responded, "Why? Has anything evil come from her?" Zaid responded, "No, by Allah! I haven’t seen anything evil from her only good."
The prophet said, "Hold unto your wife and fear Allah." That is what Allah said in the Quran, "Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favor: ‘Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah.’ But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest." For the prophet was concealing the fact that he would marry Zainab when Zaid had divorced her. (Source; translated by Dimitrius)
Commentaires du musulman de renommée et commentateur al-Qurtubi:
Muqatil narrated that the prophet married Zainab daughter of Jahsh to Zaid and she stayed with him for a while. Then one day the prophet –pbuh– came seeking Zaid but he saw Zainab standing; she was white skinned with a beautiful figure and one of the most perfect women in Quraish. So HE DESIRED HER and said, "Wondrous is Allah who changes the heart." When Zaynab heard the prophet’s exaltation of her, she relayed it to Zaid who then understood (what he had to do). Zaid said to the prophet, "O prophet of Allah, allow me to divorce her, for she has become arrogant; seeing herself superior to me and she insults me with her tongue."
The prophet replied, "Hold onto your wife and fear Allah."
It was said that Allah had sent a wind which lifted the curtain to reveal Zainab in her room. When the prophet saw her HE DESIRED HER and it delighted Zainab to be desired by the prophet – pbuh. When Zaid returned home, she informed him of what had happened and Zaid was thus determined to divorce her. (Source; translated by Dimitrius)
Al-Qurtubi a fait une liste des "bénédictions" et privilèges accordés à Mohammed, qui inclue le droit de prendre la femme d'un autre homme s'il le désire:
And any believing woman who dedicates herself to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed (Nikah) her; this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large).
As for what was granted and made lawful (by Allah) to the prophet –pbuh– they are 16 issues:-
Le Tafsir al-Jalalayn dit à propos des versets 36 et 37 de la sourate 33:
And it is not [fitting] for any believing man or believing woman, when God and His Messenger have decided on a matter, to have (read takuna or yakuna) a choice in their matter, in contravention of the decision of God and His Messenger. This [verse] was revealed regarding 'Abd Allah b. Jahsh and his sister Zaynab, whose hand the Prophet had asked for in marriage, but meaning on behalf of Zayd b. Haritha. They were loathe to this [proposal] when they found out [that it was on the latter's behalf], for they had thought that the Prophet (s) wanted to marry her himself. But afterwards they consented because of the [following part of the] verse: And whoever disobeys God and His Messenger has certainly strayed into manifest error. Thus the Prophet (s) gave her in marriage to Zayd. Then on one occasion he [the Prophet] caught sight of her and felt love for her, whereafter [when he realised that] Zayd lost his affection for her and so said to the Prophet (s), 'I want to part with her'. But the Prophet said to him, 'Retain your wife for yourself', as God, exalted be He, says: (Source)
And when (idh is dependent because of [an implied preceding] udhkur, 'mention [when]') you said to him to whom God had shown favour, by [guiding him to] Islam, and to whom you [too] had shown favour: by manumitting him - this was Zayd b. Haritha, who had been a prisoner of war before [the coming of] Islam (al-jahiliyya). The Messenger of God (s) purchased him before his call to prophethood, and then manumitted him and adopted him as his son - 'Retain your wife for yourself and fear God', before divorcing her. But you had hidden in your heart what God was to disclose, [what] He was to manifest of your love for her and of [the fact] that should Zayd part with her you would marry her, and you feared people, would say, ‘He has married his son’s wife!’, though God is worthier that you should fear Him, in all things, so take her in marriage and do not be concerned with what people say. Zayd subsequently divorced her and her [obligatory] waiting period was completed. God, exalted be He, says: So when Zayd had fulfilled whatever need he had of her, We joined her in marriage to you - the Prophet consummated his marriage with her without [the customary] permission [from her legal guardian] and gratified the Muslims with [a feast of] bread and meat - so that there may not be any restriction for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have fulfilled whatever wish they have of them. And God's commandment, that which He has decreed, is bound to be realised. (Source)
Un commentaire attribué à Ibn Abbas nous dit que:
(And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favour) through Islam, i.e. Zayd (and thou hast conferred favour) on him by emancipating him: (Keep thy wife to thyself) and do not divorce her, (and fear Allah) and fear Allah and do not let her go. (And thou didst hide in your mind) her love and the desire to marry her (that which Allah was to bring to light) in the Qur’an, (and thou didst fear mankind) and you feel ashamed of people because of this (whereas Allah had a better right that thou shouldst fear Him) whereas you should be ashamed of Allah. (So when Zayd had performed the necessary formality (of divorce) from her) when she has finished her waiting period after her divorce from Zayd, (We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth)) after you (there may be no sin for believers about wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them) when they had finished their waiting period after they are divorced or after the death of their husband. (The commandment of Allah) marrying Zayd to Muhammad (pbuh) (must be fulfilled) must take place. (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; online edition; bold and underline emphasis ours)
Commentaire de Al-Zamakhshari sur le sujet:
Keep thy wife to thyself: that is, Zainab bint Jahsh. After having given her to Zaid ibn Haritha as a wife, the Messenger of God once caught sight of her, and she made an impression of him. At this sight he said: ‘Praise be to God who changes the heart!’ Previously his soul had turned away from her so that he had not desired her (as a wife). If he had desired her at that time, he would have asked her for her hand in marriage. Now Zainab heard of this praise and mentioned it to (her husband) Zaid, who understood and to whom God gave antipathy against her and aversion to intimacy with her. So Zaid said to the Messenger of God: ‘I might divorce my wife’; to which the latter replied: ‘What is it? Has something filled you with mistrust against her?’ Zaid answered: ‘By God, no! I have observed only good in her; yet her noble rank places her too high above me and causes me to feel hurt.’ Thereupon the Messenger of God said: ‘Keep thy wife to thyself and fear God.’ But Zaid (nevertheless) separated from her, and as soon as the waiting period (during which the wife may enter into no new marriage) had elapsed, the Messenger of God had said (to Zaid): ‘I have no one whom I trust more than you; therefore, seek the hand of Zainab for me!’
Zaid reported: I went forth and there I suddenly found her just as she was leavening some dough. As soon as I saw her she made such an impression on me, since I knew that the Messenger of God had been speaking of her…
One may ask what the Prophet kept secret within himself. To this I answer: the fact that he was devoted to her in his heart. Others say: the wish that Zaid might separate from her. Still others say: his knowledge that Zaid would separate from her and that he would marry her, for God had already given this knowledge to him…
(Further) one may ask what the Prophet should have said when Zaid informed him that he wanted to separate from Zainab, since it would have been objectionable if he had said: ‘Do it, for I want to marry her!’ To this I reply: It may perhaps be God's will that in this case he keep silent or say to Zaid: ‘You know your situation best.’ In this manner he would not have contradicted his secret which he (later) indicated had been revealed ... (Helmut Gätje, The Qur'an and its Exegesis [Routledge and Keagan Paul, London UK 1976], pp. 83-85)
Ces sources islamiques proviennent de la page: http://answering-islam.org.uk/Shamoun/zaynab.htm
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